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Immunostaining is an indispensable tool in immunology, molecular biology, basic research, drug development and pathology, enabling researchers to gain a better understanding of biological processes and disease mechanisms. Our comprehensive range of immunostaining techniques allows you to investigate protein expression, localisation and distribution in your samples.

We offer tailor-made staining using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence for human and animal tissue (for FFPE tissue and frozen sections) as well as staining of organoid cells, cytospins, smear preparations and samples of human skin equivalents.

All our immunostains are performed fully automated on our Leica BOND immunostainer. This way, we guarantee consistent, reproducible stains of the highest quality and optimum preservation of the tissue morphology at the same time.

Selection and optimisation of antibodies

Antibodies can often be used in multiple assays, however, they are not equally good in all assays. This applies in particular to immunostaining, especially when working with tissue samples that have been fixed with formalin and embedded in paraffin. Immunostaining is a complex procedure whose results are influenced by a variety of parameters. It is therefore important that such an assay is based on a solid foundation, which already begins with the selection of suitable antibodies. We would be pleased to support you with our many years of experience in the search for suitable markers and carry out optimisation on suitable positive and negative controls.

We can offer the following immunostaining techniques. Please contact us if you require further information on the individual staining techniques. 


Single-Plex HRP/DAB

Here we employ the ready-to-use BOND Refine detection system. Almost all of our antibodies were established applying this technique.

Single-Plex AP/FastRed

Here we employ the ready-to-use BOND Refine Red detection system. Some of our antibodies were established applying this technique. This detection system is often used for staining of pigmented samples.

Duplex immunostaining

Sometimes HRP/DAB and AP/FastRed are combined on the same section to visualise two antigens all at once.
If required or for special queries, we can also combine other chromogens within a double stain.

Immunofluorescence Single-Plex

Immunofluorescence staining has become a preferred technique for researchers investigating cell structures and dynamic processes. Due to its ability to deliver high-resolution images, it is particularly useful in areas such as neurosciences, cell biology and immunology. Some of our primary antibodies are also established for IF single staining. You can find an overview of our validated antibodies in our antibody catalogue.

Immunofluorescence Duplex

Sometimes it can prove helpful to be able to visualise two antigens simultaneously in one immunofluorescence stain. This is referred to as duplex immunofluorescence staining.


Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, has been a key topic for many years, particularly in cancer research. In addition to the option of visualising apoptosis-associated proteins, such as caspases, by immunostaining, the TUNEL assay (short for Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase DUTP Nick End Labelling Assay) in particular offers the possibility of specifically identifying apoptotic cells.